Why we sleep ielts reading answers

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Why we sleep ielts reading answers

All of the organisms that damage timber in buildings are part of the natural process that takes deadwood to the forest floor, decomposes it into humus and recycles the nutrients released back into trees. Each stage in this process requires the correct environment and if we replicate this in our buildings then the organisms belonging to that part of the cycle will invade. A poorly maintained roof is, after all, just an extension of the forest floor to a fungus. The first fact to remember about deathwatch beetles in your building is that they have probably been there for centuries and will continue long after you have gone.

Beetle damage in oak timbers is a slow process and if we make it slower by good maintenance then the beetle population may eventually decline to extinction. The second fact is that natural predation will help you. Spiders are a significant predator and will help to keep the beetle population under control. They will speed up the decline of a beetle population in a well-maintained building. The beetles fly to light and some form of the light trap may help to deplete a population. The place in which it is used must be dark so that there is no competing light source, and the air temperature must rise above about 17 o C during the emergence season April to June so that the beetles will fly.

Beetle holes do not disappear when the beetles have gone so it is sometimes necessary to confirm active infestation if remedial works are planned. This is generally easy with beetle damage in sapwood because the holes will look clean and have sharp edges, usually with bore dust trickling from them. Infestation deep within modified heartwood is more difficult to detect, particularly because the beetles will not necessarily bite their own emergence holes if plenty of other holes are available.

This problem may be overcome by clogging the suspected holes with furniture polish or by covering a group of holes tightly with paper or card. Any emerging beetles will make a hole that should be visible so that the extent and magnitude of the problem can be assessed. Unnecessary pesticide treatments must be avoided.

Sometimes a building cannot be dried enough to eradicate the beetles or a localised population will have built up unnoticed. A few scattered beetles in a building need not cause much concern, but dozens of beetles below a beam-end might indicate the need for some form of treatment if the infested timber is accessible.

Insecticides formulated as a paste can be effective — either applied to the surface or caulked into pre-drilled holes — but the formulations may only be obtainable by a remedial company. Contact insecticides might also kill natural predators. Heat treatments for entire buildings are available and the continental experience is that they are effective.

They are also likely to be expensive but they may be the only way to eradicate a heavy and widespread infestation without causing considerable structural degradation of the building. The first is the House Longhorn Beetle Hylotrupes bajulus.

This is a large insect that produces oval emergence holes that are packed with litter cylindrical pellets. The beetles restrict their activities to the sapwood of 20th-century softwood, although there is now some evidence that they will attack older softwood. The beetle larvae can cause considerable damage but infestation has generally been restricted to the southwest of London, possibly because they need a high temperature before the beetles will fly.

Old damage is, however, frequently found elsewhere, thus indicating a wider distribution in the past, and infested timber is sometimes imported.

why we sleep ielts reading answers

This is an insect that might become more widespread because of climate change. The second is the Lyctus or powderpost beetle. There are several species that are rather difficult to tell apart. These beetles live in the sapwood of oak. The beetles breed rapidly so that many cylindrical beetles may be present and the round emergence holes resemble those of the furniture beetle. This is and has always been, a pest of newly-installed oak. Timbers with an exploded sapwood surface are frequently found in old buildings and the damage will have occurred during the first few decades after the timbers were installed.

Our main interest with these beetles is that they seem to have become more common of late.Read the text below and answer the questions. After you finish, click 'check' and move on to the next section.

IELTS Academic Reading Test 3. Section 2

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 15—30which are based on Reading Passage 2 below. We spend a third of our lives doing it. Napoleon, Florence Nightingale and Margaret Thatcher got by on four hours a night. Thomas Edison claimed it was waste of time. So why do we sleep? This is a question that has baffled scientists for centuries and the answer is, no one is really sure. Some believe that sleep gives the body a chance to recuperate from the day's activities but in reality, the amount of energy saved by sleeping for even eight hours is miniscule - about 50 kCal, the same amount of energy in a piece of toast.

With continued lack of sufficient sleep, the part of the brain that controls language, memory, planning and sense of time is severely affected, practically shutting down. In fact, 17 hours of sustained wakefulness leads to a decrease in performance equivalent to a blood alcohol level of 0.

This is the legal drink driving limit in the UK. Research also shows that sleep-deprived individuals often have difficulty in responding to rapidly changing situations and making rational judgements.

In real life situations, the consequences are grave and lack of sleep is said to have been be a contributory factor to a number of international disasters such as Exxon ValdezChernobyl, Three Mile Island and the Challenger shuttle explosion. Sleep deprivation not only has a major impact on cognitive functioning but also on emotional and physical health. Disorders such as sleep apnoea which result in excessive daytime sleepiness have been linked to stress and high blood pressure.

Research has also suggested that sleep loss may increase the risk of obesity because chemicals and hormones that play a key role in controlling appetite and weight gain are released during sleep. What happens every time we get a bit of shut eye?

Sleep occurs in a recurring cycle of 90 to minutes and is divided into two categories: non-REM which is further split into four stages and REM sleep.

why we sleep ielts reading answers

During the first stage of sleep, we're half awake and half asleep. Our muscle activity slows down and slight twitching may occur.

IELTS Speaking Sample Answer # Sleep And You

This is a period of light sleep, meaning we can be awakened easily at this stage. Within ten minutes of light sleep, we enter stage two, which lasts around 20 minutes. The breathing pattern and heart rate start to slow down. This period accounts for the largest part of human sleep. During stage three, the brain begins to produce delta waves, a type of wave that is large high amplitude and slow low frequency. Breathing and heart rate are at their lowest levels.

Stage four is characterised by rhythmic breathing and limited muscle activity. If we are awakened during deep sleep we do not adjust immediately and often feel groggy and disoriented for several minutes after waking up.

Some children experience bed-wetting, night terrors, or sleepwalking during this stage. The first rapid eye movement REM period usually begins about 70 to 90 minutes after we fall asleep.

We have around three to five REM episodes a night. Although we are not conscious, the brain is very active - often more so than when we are awake. This is the period when most dreams occur. Our eyes dart around hence the nameour breathing rate and blood pressure rise. However, our bodies are effectively paralysed, said to be nature's way of preventing us from acting out our dreams. There is no set amount of time that everyone needs to sleep, since it varies from person to person.Section A It is estimated that the average man or woman needs between seven-and-a-half and eight hours' sleep a night.

Some can manage on a lot less. Baroness Thatcher, for example, was reported to be able to get by on four hours' sleep a night when she was Prime Minister of Britain.

Dr Jill Wilkinson, senior lecturer in psychology at Surrey University and co-author of 'Psychology in Counselling and Therapeutic Practice', states that healthy individuals sleeping less than five hours or even as little as two hours in every 24 hours are rare, but represent a sizeable minority.

Section B The latest beliefs are that the main purposes of sleep are to enable the body to rest and replenish, allowing time for repairs to take place and for tissue to be regenerated. One supporting piece of evidence for this rest-and-repair theory is that production of the growth hormone somatotropin, which helps tissue to regenerate, peaks while we are asleep.

Lack of sleep, however, can compromise the immune system, muddle thinking, cause depression, promote anxiety and encourage irritability. Section C Researchers in San Diego deprived a group of men of sleep between 1am and 5am on just one night, and found that levels of their bodies' natural defences against viral infections had fallen significantly when measured the following morning. Section D For many people, lack of sleep is rarely a matter of choice.

Some have problems getting to sleep, others with staying asleep until the morning. Despite popular belief that sleep is one long event, research shows that, in an average night, there are five stages of sleep and four cycles, during which the sequence of stages is repeated.

In the first light phase, the heart rate and blood pressure go down and the muscles relax. In the next two stages, sleep gets progressively deeper. In stage four, usually reached after an hour, the slumber is so deep that, if awoken, the sleeper would be confused and disorientated. It is in this phase that sleep-walking can occur, with an average episode lasting no more than 15 minutes. In the fifth stage, the rapid eye movement REM stage, the heartbeat quickly gets back to normal levels, brain activity accelerates to daytime heights and above and the eyes move constantly beneath closed lids as if the sleeper is looking at something.

During this stage, the body is almost paralysed. This REM phase is also the time when we dream. Section E Sleeping patterns change with age, which is why many people over 60 develop insomnia.

In America, that age group consumes almost half the sleep medication on the market. One theory for the age-related change is that it is due to hormonal changes. The temperature General Training: Reading and Writing rise occurs at daybreak in the young, but at three or four in the morning in the elderly.

Age aside, it is estimated that roughly one in three people suffer some kind of sleep disturbance. Causes can be anything from pregnancy and stress to alcohol and heart disease. Smoking is a known handicap to sleep, with one survey showing that ex-smokers got to sleep in 18 minutes rather than their earlier average of 52 minutes. Section F Apart from self-help therapy such as regular exercise, there are psychological treatments, including relaxation training and therapy aimed at getting rid of pre-sleep worries and anxieties.

There is also sleep reduction therapy, where the aim is to improve sleep quality by strictly regulating the time people go to bed and when they get up. Medication is regarded by many as a last resort and often takes the form of sleeping pills, normally benzodiazepines, which are minor tranquillisers. Section G Professor Regelson advocates the use of melatonin for treating sleep disorders.This website is designed for non-native English speakers who need to study in America, Australia and Europe or Work where English is the language of communication.

Contact Sitemap Downloads. The Lack Of Sleep Section A It is estimated that the average man or woman needs between seven-and-a-half and eight hours' sleep a night. Some can manage on a lot less. Baroness Thatcher, for example, was reported to be able to get by on four hours' sleep a night when she was Prime Minister of Britain.

Dr Jill Wilkinson, senior lecturer in psychology at Surrey University and co-author of 'Psychology in Counseling and Therapeutic Practice', states that healthy individuals sleeping less than five hours or even as little as two hours in every 24 hours are rare, but represent a sizeable minority. Section B The latest beliefs are that the main purposes of sleep are to enable the body to rest and replenish, allowing time for repairs to take place and for tissue to be regenerated.

Lack of sleep, however, can compromise the immune system, muddle thinking, cause depression, promote anxiety and encourage irritability. Section C Researchers in San Diego deprived a group of men of sleep between Sam and lam on just one night, and found that levels of their bodies' natural defences against viral infections had fallen significantly when measured the following morning.

Some have problems getting to sleep, others with staying asleep until the morning. Despite popular belief that sleep is one long event, research shows that, in an average night, there are five stages of sleep and four cycles, during which the sequence of stages is repeated. In the first light phase, the heart rate and blood pressure go down and the muscles relax. In the next two stages, sleep gets progressively deeper.

In stage four, usually reached after an hour, the slumber is so deep that, if awoken, the sleeper would be confused and disorientated. It is in this phase that sleep-walking can occur, with an average episode lasting no more than 15 minutes. In the fifth stage, the rapid eye movement REM stage, the heartbeat quickly gets back to normal levels, brain activity accelerates to daytime heights and above and the eyes move constantly beneath closed lids as if the sleeper is looking at something.

During this stage, the body is almost paralyzed. This REM phase is also the time when we dream. Section E Sleeping patterns change with age, which is why many people over 60 develop insomnia. In America, that age group consumes almost half the sleep medication on the market. One theory for the age-related change is that it is due to hormonal changes.

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The temperature General Training: Reading and Writing rise occurs at daybreak in the young, but at three or four in the morning in the elderly. Age aside, it is estimated that roughly one in three people suffer some kind of sleep disturbance. Causes can be anything from pregnancy and stress to alcohol and heart disease. Smoking is a known handicap to sleep, with one survey showing that ex-smokers got to sleep in 18 minutes rather than their earlier average of 52 minutes.

Section F Apart from self-help therapy such as regular exercise, there are psychological treatments, including relaxation training and therapy aimed at getting rid of pre-sleep worries and anxieties. There is also sleep reduction therapy, where the aim is to improve sleep quality by strictly regulating the time people go to bed and when they get up. Medication is regarded by many as a last resort and often takes the form of sleeping pills, normally benzodiazepines, which are minor tranquillizers.

Section G Professor Regelson advocates the use of melatonin for treating sleep disorders. Melatonin is a naturally secreted hormone, located in the pineal gland deep inside the brain. The main function of the hormone is to control the body's biological clock, so we know when to sleep and when to wake.

The gland detects light reaching it through the eye; when there is no light, it secretes the melatonin into the bloodstream, lowering the body temperature and helping to induce sleep. Melatonin pills contain a synthetic version of the hormone and are commonly used for jet lag as well as for sleep disturbance.

IELTS – 3 Reading Strategies

John Nicholls, sales manager of one of America's largest health food shops, claims that sales of the pill have increased dramatically.

He explains that it is sold in capsules, tablets, lozenges and mixed with herbs. It is not.Sleep, no matter how much we want to work, is important. It is that one thing that we cannot live without and deprivation of it can cause so many issues in body. Let us today, have a look at some of the questions related to sleep that might be asked in Part I of Speaking section.

But, there was friend of mine, who used to get scary nightmares. One of them she told me was in which she was eating frogs and choking on it. It was so scary that we had to plan a vacation to get off that from our minds.

Have you ever tried to interpret your own dreams? I think yes, psychologist can surely interpret dreams only if they know the person. Because, then it becomes lot more easier to figure out what the person is fighting and make more sense out of some random pictures.

I remember reading a book in which the psychologist used the dreams of his patient to figure out the unconscious mind of the patient. Yes, I remember when I was doing my graduation, dreams made me wonder a lot and whenever I used to have a dream, I would google it down.

Later it was found out that he had some psychological issue because of a dark past. With the help of psychologist he was able to fight things back. Most of the times, I need a minimum of 6 hours of sleep, but on a tiring day, usually when I am back from a trip, I tend to sleep around hours. So, we should take care of it. However, there was a time when I did not got much sleep.

It was when I was starting my company, the initial days, there was so much that had to be done. And, even before starting it up, I had to earn more money to be able to save off for it. Those were the years when I did not got much sleep. Insomnia, not exactly, but yes there were times when I used to have very small sleeping hours.

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So, I would just fall asleep and then wake up and then again fall asleep. I soon realized that my body needs care. I am definitely a heavy sleeper who has to go for light sleeping. I love to sleep and in my initial years of life I used to sleep a lot, but with later years coming in, I became more responsible and started sleeping only that was required by body. There are few things that can keep me awake, one is writing, the other is coding.

It is when I am doing these two things that I almost forget what the time is. I remember, one day, checking the clock after coding for some time, only to realize that it is now almost 2 in the night and I have been coding since past 5 hours.Hi, I'm Liz. Below are some questions for this topic.

It contains some more useful vocabulary for you. Thanks so much for your useful lessons. I am getting to know more about Ielts and your web is really a helpful address. I often have a nap during the day.

Cen tro stu di “ag en dad ig ita le verd e”

I think sleep is very important. If I go to bed late, I usually have a nap during the day. Its tough question to answer. Well I think old people need to have rest more than the younger ones. Its so because old people get tired and easily exhausted. Young people are more energetic than old so, it s nice to provide more sleep hours to aged people. The number of sleep hours a person need and age have a positive correlation.

This means as a person get older, he needs less sleep. You might have noticed that infant and young child sleep longer hours than young adults do. Similarly, young adults need to sleep longer to feel refreshed than elderly individuals. This is a normal physiological change in human life. What is the best way to answer the question which says, Who is suppose to have long hours of sleep, young people or adults? For the speaking test, you can answer that any way you want because there are no points for ideas.

You only get points for your English language. Here are some possible answers for a speaking part 1 question:. I think that young people probably need more sleep than older people because they are more active both physically and mentally.

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Sleep helps them recharge their batteries so to speak. I think old people need more sleep because they frequently get tired. Hi Liz, I do have a question regarding this, suppose if examiner will ask this similar question.For the old SAT, knowing vocabulary was crucial to doing well. So in addition to studying vocabulary words, you should also practice doing advanced reading and test your ability to define tough words based on their context. Your first place to head for SAT Reading practice is the source: the College Board website.

They've posted a number of free new SAT practice tests. Start there to get a sense of what the new SAT Reading section is like. Still have old SAT prep books sitting around. You can use old SAT Critical Reading questions to practice, but focus on the passage-based questions and ignore the sentence-completion questions. ACT Reading section questions will also be helpful, as they are all passage-based and contain vocabulary in context as well as logical progression questions.

Another unlikely but helpful source is ACT Science questions. ACT Science also has you break down charts, graphs, and evidence. If you can do well on ACT Science, you will be able to do well on the new SAT data reasoning questions. Check out some sample questions over the Law School Admissions Council website. Want a bit more structure for vocabulary in context. One of my favorite tools for learning vocabulary in context is a browser app called ProfessorWord. This article alone has about a dozen SAT vocabulary words, according to ProfessorWord.

The writing section is quite different on the new SAT. There is more emphasis on logic and expression of ideas, higher-level writing skills, and punctuation.

This means that there are fewer grammar rules tested in isolation, which in turn means fewer "gotcha" questions on the new SAT Writing section. However, being aware of writing style, construction, and organization is more important, since you will now be working with longer passages.

why we sleep ielts reading answers

Start your studying by learning English grammar rules by heart. Then give the SAT's official practice tests a try. In terms of additional practice questions, we recommend you use ACT English practice questions, as these are all passage-based, like the new SAT Writing questions are.

You can also use old SAT Writing multiple-choice questions to test your grammar rule knowledge, but remember to be ready for passages. Finally, the more you read and write, the better you will get at spotting writing organization and style naturally.

The essay score is now completely separate from the writing score.


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